Shooting sports have 3 main categories:
- Rifle shooting
- Pistol shooting
- Shotgun shooting (clay shooting)
In each of those categories there are various events:
1. Rifle – competitors use special gear including: jacket, trousers, shoes, and a glove. For each piece there are rules about their properties set by International Shooting Sport Federation (ISSF).
- Air rifle; is an ISSF shooting event, shot over a distance of 10 metres in a standing position with a 4.5 mm cal. air rifle. Depending on category (women, men, junior, senior) it`s usually 4 or 6 series of 10 shots. Time for competition is most often 15 minutes for every 10 shots plus 15 minutes for sighting shots.
- Sport rifle/Free rifle (rimfire) prone; distance 50 metres, cal. 5.6 mm. Usually event consists of 60 shots for a competition plus sighting shots in about 1 hour 15 minutes. Shooters are in prone position and use special belt for stabilisation. Shooters cannot use any bipods or similiar, they need to hold rifle in their hands.
- Sport rifle/Free rifle three positions; firstly competitiors shoot in prone position, then standing position, and at the end kneeling position. Event is held at a distance of either 50 m or 300 m. There is between 1 and 4 series of shots for every position. For every position shooters have separate targets for sighting shots. Time for an event is dependent on number of series of shots for ever position.
- Standard rifle prone; distance 300 m, cal. up to 8 mm. Event consists of 60 shots in 1 hour and 15 minutes.
2. Pistol – events do not require any special clothing, however current laws set by ISSF require shooter to wear sportswear. Every event has a set of rules reagarding weapon parameters.
- Air pistol; similarly to air rifle the distance is 10 m. Time for an event, calibre of pellets and number of shots are the same as in air rifle.
- Free pistol; distance 50 m. Traditionally men only event that consists of 60 shots. Time for the competition is 2 hours. Ammunition is the same as for 50m rifle events (5.6 mm, rimfire).
- Sport pistol; distance 25 m; cal. 5.6 mm (rimfire); this event consists of two parts: shooting to a still target and rapid fire. Firstly competitors shoot 30 shots in 6 series (5 min. for each serie). Then in rapid fire part there are 6 series — 5 shots each — but competitors have only 3 seconds per shot with a 7 second break in between shots.
- 25 m center fire pistol (men); similiar to sport pistol, except for weapons used. Calibre of weapons in this event has to be at least 7.62 mm but not larger than 9.65 mm.
- 25 m rapid fire pistol (men); event is divided into 2 halves 30 shots each. In both halves there are six 5-shot series. These 6 series are dividied into 3 pairs. Time for a serie in each of those pairs is different. There are 8 seconds for a serie in the first pair, then there are 6s in second pair and for the last two series there are 4 seconds for a serie of 5 shots. In this event there are 5 targets — 1 for each shot in a serie — which means that shooter has to move his sights from target to target for every shot. Similiarly to sport pistol`s rapid fire part shooters wait for a start signal which is either a green light or target`s rotation so it`s visible to the shooter.
- 25 m standard pistol (men); 3 part event. Each part consists of four 5-shot series. For every serie in the first part there are 150 seconds, next part there are 20 seconds and in the last part there are 10 seconds for a serie. Just like in rapid fire pistol event, serie begins when target rotates to face the shooter or green light appears.
- Practical shooting also known as dynamic shooting or action shooting (pistol/revolver) (men); this event consists of shooting with a center fire pistol or revolver (min. calibre 9 mm) to paper or metal targets set up in a specific order according to competition`s rules. Each set of targets is called a stage. Number of targets and their setup forces shooter to change his position and firing point as well as reload his weapon when necessary. Score is calculated by summing number of targets hit divided by time that shooter required to complete a stage. Event consists of — depending on competition`s rank — few or more stages which can be short (9 or less shots required to finish a stage), medium (10-16 shots required) or long (17-32 shots). Shooters are divided (randomly) into groups and complete one stage at a time then move onto the next once everyone in their group finished that stage. The final score is weighted arithmetic mean of scores from all the stages.
3. Shotgun (clay shooting)
- Trap: this event consists of using shotguns to break clays (which are 110 mm in diameter, have height of 25-26 mm and mass of 105 g) thrown by machines setup in a „bunker“ that is 15 metres away from 5 firing points. Shooters can use up to 2 pieces of ammunition for every clay. After a round when every shooter has had their chance to hit a clay they move to the next firing point (eg shooter standing at firing point #1 moves to FP #2, shooter at FP #2 moves to FP #3, etc.). The course of fire is 125 targets for men and 75 targets for women.
- Skeet: event consisting of using shotguns to break clays flung into the air by 2 machines at fixed positions. Shooter can use only 1 piece of ammunition per clay. Field for this event has 2 machines placed high and low at fixed positions and 8 firing points on a semicircle with a radius of 19.2 m. Clays are thrown one by one from either „high“ or „low“ machine. After every shooter had his/her shot at a clay they move to next position. The course of fire is 125 targets for men and 75 targets for women.